Synanthropic Vegetation; Mangroves;

Published: June 6th, 2010 | Updated: 25/12/19

1.3.18 Synanthropic Vegetation; References

In Israel, category 3.18 is further divided into three subcategories according to the remnants of trees found in intensively cultivated areas. In 3.18a the trees are [Quercus ithaburensis]; in 3.18b, [Ziziphus spina-christi]; and in 3.18c, [Acacia raddiana] and [Ziziphus spina-christi] (Danin, 1988: 129). The synanthropic vegetation of Jordan and the present status of the synanthropic vegetation in Sinai need to be investigated further.

1.3.19. Mangroves

Mangroves are the vegetation formations that developed in countries with warm climates along seacoasts where the soil is deep clay, and along rivers influenced by tides. The mangroves of Nabq (Fig. 1.3.127) in eastern Sinai typically grow on the remnants of coral reefs and in muddy tidewater soils; at 280^10’ N, they constitute the earth’s most northerly population of Avicennia marina. This species was recorded even further from the equator in southern Australia at 37^0S (Walsh, 1974). The only population found in the Gulf of Suez shares its water, and possibly warmth, with the Gulf of Elat at Ras Mohammed (Fig. 1.3.128). One of the most interesting characteristics of mangroves is their pneumatophores (“breathing” roots). Their ordinary roots, located below seawater or in mud, are oversaturated with water, and the pneumatophores supply the missing oxygen.

Fig. 1.3.127: Mangroves of Avicennia maritima at the Nabeq beach, southern Sinai. The rocks are petrified coral reefs. The trees grow in sea-water at the tide zone and are typified by pneumatophores (roots transferring oxygen from the air above the water), which look like small sticks below the trees.

Fig. 1.3.128: Mangroves at Ras Mohammed, enjoying the water of the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Elat.

1.4. References

  • Al-Eisawi, D.M. 1996. Vegetation of Jordan. UNESCO, Cairo Office.
  • Barsotti, G. & S. Cavalli. 1989. Sulla presenza di vegetazione arborea relitta nel deserto della Giordania Meridionale (Wadi Rum). Quad. Mus. Nat. Livorno 10: 47-57.
  • Bourvine, A. 1963. Mapping and ecology of the plant communities of Sodom salt marsh. M.Sc. Thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (in Hebrew).
  • Danin, A. 1969. A new Origanum from the Isthmic Desert (Sinai), Origanum isthmicum sp. n. Israel J. Bot. 18: 191 193.
  • Danin, A. 1972. Mediterranean elements in rocks of the Negev and Sinai deserts. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31: 437-440.
  • Danin, A. 1977. The Vegetation of the Negev, North of Nahal Paran (in Hebrew). Sifriat Poalim, Tel Aviv. 161 pp.
  • Danin, A. 1978. Species diversity of semishrub xerohalophyte communities in the Judean Desert of Israel. Israel J. Bot. 27: 66 76.
  • Danin, A. 1981. The impact of geomorphologic and climatic conditions on the vegetation of the salt marshes along the Mediterranean coast of Israel and Sinai. Actas III Congr. OPTIMA, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 37: 269 275.
  • Danin, A. 1983. Desert Vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Cana, Jerusalem. 148 pp.
  • Danin, A. 1988a. Flora and vegetation of Israel. In: Y. Yom Tov and E. Tchernov (eds.) The Zoogeography of Israel. pp. 129 157. Junk, Dordrecht.
  • Danin, A. 1991a. Synanthropic flora of Israel. — Flora et Vegetatio Mundi 9: 95-103.
  • Danin, A. 1991b. Roadside vegetation in Israel. — Int. Urban Ecology Symposium, Izmir.
  • Danin, A. 1995a. Man and the natural environment. In: T.E. Levy (ed.) The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Leicester University Press, London, pp. 24-39.
  • Danin, A. 1996a. Vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Bot. Zhurn. 81(11): 14-31.
  • Danin, A. 1996b. Shootborne roots — an adaptive organ in sand dunes. 2nd Int. Symp. Biol. of Root Formation and Devel. Jerusalem June 23-26, 1996:2.
  • Danin, A. 1996c. Ecomorphological types of plants in desert dunes. In: Y. Steinberger (ed.) Preservation of our World in the Wake of Change. 6th Int. Conf. Isr. Soc. Ecol. Env. Quality Sci. Jerusalem June 30-July 4, 1996. ISEEQS Publication, Jerusalem, VIB:488-491.
  • Danin, A. 1999. Desert rocks as plant refugia in the Near East. Bot. Rev. 65(2): 93-170.
  • Danin, A. & K?nne, I. 1996. A new species of Origanum (Labiatae) from Jordan: O. jordanicum Danin et K?nne sp.n., and notes on the species of section Campanulaticalyx. Willdenowia 25(2): 601-611.
  • Danin, A. & Orshan, G. (eds.) 1999. Vegetation of Israel. I. Desert and coastal vegetation. Backhuys, Leiden, 341 pp.
  • Danin, A., Orshan, G. & Zohary, M. 1964. Vegetation of the Neogene sandy areas of the Northern Negev. Israel J. Bot. 13: 208 233.
  • Danin, A., Orshan, G. & Zohary, M. 1975. The vegetation of the Northern Negev and the Judean Desert of Israel. Israel J. Bot. 24: 118 172.
  • Eig, A. 1931-32. Les elements et les groupes phytogeographiques auxiliaires dans la flore Palestinienne. 2 parts. – Fedde’s Repert. Spec. Nov. Reg. Veget. Beih. 63(1): 1-201; (2): 1-120.
  • Eig, A. 1938. On the phytogeographical subdivision of Palestine. Palestine J. Borany, Jerusalem. 1: 4-12.
  • Eig, A. 1946. Synopsis of the phytosociological units of Palestine. Palest. J. Bot. (Jerusalem) 3: 183-284.
  • Halevy, G. & Orshan, G. 1972. Ecological studies on Acacia species in the Negev and Sinai. I. Distribution of Acacia raddiana, A. tortilis and A. gerrarddii ssp. negevensis as related to environmental factors. Isr. J. Bot. 22: 120-138.
  • Lipkin, Y. 1971. Vegetation of the Southern Negev. Ph.D. thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (in Hebrew with an English abstract).
  • Monod, t. 1931. Remarques biologiques sur la sahara. Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 42(21): 609-616.
  • Rudich, D. & Danin, A. 1978. The vegetation of Hazeva area, Israel. Isr. J. Bot. 27: 160-176.
  • Walsh, G.E. 1974. Mangroves: A review. In: R.J. Reinold & W.H. (eds.) Ecology of Halophytes. Pp. 51-174. Academic Press, New York.
  • Yaalon, D.H. 1963. On the origin and accumulation of salts in groundwater and soils of Israel. Bull. Res. Counc. Isr. 11c: 105-131.
  • Yair, A. & Danin, A. 1980. Spatial variations in vegetation as related to the soil moisture regime over an arid limestone hillside, Northern Negev. Oecologia (Berl.) 47: 83 88.
  • Yudkiss H. 1987. Bibliography of botanical research of the Middle East region. Boissiera 39: 1-438.