Synanthropic Vegetation; Mangroves;

Published: June 6th, 2010 | Updated: 14/01/15

1.3.18 Synanthropic Vegetation; References

In Israel, category 3.18 is further divided into three subcategories according to the remnants of trees found in intensively cultivated areas. In 3.18a the trees are Quercus ithaburensis; in 3.18b, Ziziphus spina-christi; and in 3.18c, Acacia raddiana and Ziziphus spina-christi (Danin, 1988: 129). The synanthropic vegetation of Jordan and the present status of the synanthropic vegetation in Sinai need to be investigated further.

1.3.19. Mangroves

Mangroves are the vegetation formations that developed in countries with warm climates along seacoasts where the soil is deep clay, and along rivers influenced by tides. The mangroves of Nabq (Fig. 1.3.127) in eastern Sinai typically grow on the remnants of coral reefs and in muddy tidewater soils; at 280^10’ N, they constitute the earth’s most northerly population of Avicennia marina. This species was recorded even further from the equator in southern Australia at 37^0S (Walsh, 1974). The only population found in the Gulf of Suez shares its water, and possibly warmth, with the Gulf of Elat at Ras Mohammed (Fig. 1.3.128). One of the most interesting characteristics of mangroves is their pneumatophores (“breathing” roots). Their ordinary roots, located below seawater or in mud, are oversaturated with water, and the pneumatophores supply the missing oxygen.

Fig. 1.3.127: Mangroves of Avicennia maritima at the Nabeq beach, southern Sinai. The rocks are petrified coral reefs. The trees grow in sea-water at the tide zone and are typified by pneumatophores (roots transferring oxygen from the air above the water), which look like small sticks below the trees.

Fig. 1.3.128: Mangroves at Ras Mohammed, enjoying the water of the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Elat.

1.4. References

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  • Bourvine, A. 1963. Mapping and ecology of the plant communities of Sodom salt marsh. M.Sc. Thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (in Hebrew).
  • Danin, A. 1969. A new Origanum from the Isthmic Desert (Sinai), Origanum isthmicum sp. n. Israel J. Bot. 18: 191 193.
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